English History Outline

This is just a partial outline of English History that I've put together as a memory aid.

Wessex

Alfred (871-899)

Edward the Elder (899-924)

Athelstan (924-939)

Edmund(939-946)

Eadred (946-955)

Eadwig (955-959)

Edgar (956-975)

Edward the Martyr (975-978)

Aethelred the Unready (978-1016)

Edmund Ironside (1016-1016)

Danish

Cnut(1016-1035)

Harold Harefoot (1035-1040)

Harthacnut (1040-1042)

English

Edward the Confessor (1042-1066)

Harold Godwinson (1066-1066)

14 Oct 1066
Harold was killed at the battle of Hastings

House of Normandy

William the Conqueror (1066-1087)

Claim:
first cousin once removed to Edward the Confessor
Born:
c. 1028 Normandy, France
Coronation:
25 September 1066
Died:
9 Sep 1087 at Rouen

William was the 7th Duke of Normandy

1086
Domesday inquest

William II (1087-1100)

Claim:
son of William I
Born:
c. 1056, Normandy, France
Coronation:
26 Sep 1087 at Westminster
Died:
2 Aug 1100 in the New Forest

Henry I (1100-1135)

Claim:
fourth son of William I
Born:
c. 1068
Coronation:
5 Aug 1100 at Westminster
Died:
1 Dec 1135 at Lyons-la-Forêt, Normandy
1101
Henry’s brother Robert, the duke of Normandy invades England but makes terms in the Treaty of Alton
1106
Henry conquers Normandy
20 Aug 1119
Henry defeats Louis VI at Bremule
25 Nov 1120
Henry’s son William drowned in the sinking of the White Ship
26 Mar 1124
The defeat of Norman rebels by Henry at Bourgtheroulde

Stephen (1135-1154)

Claim:
nephew of Henry I
Born:
c. 1094
Coronation:
22 Dec 1135 at Westminster
Died:
25 Oct 1154 at Canterbury
22 Aug 1138
Defeat of the Scots at the Battle of the Standard
30 Sep 1139
Empress Matilda and Robert of Gloucester land in England
2 Feb 1141
Battle of Lincoln resulting in the capture of Stephen
14 Sep 1141
Defeat of Matilda’s forces and the capture of Robert of Gloucester at ‘the rout on Winchester’

Henry II (1154-1189)

Claim:
grandson of Henry I
Born:
5 Mar 1133 Le Mans, France
Coronation:
19 Dec 1154 at Westminster
Died:
6 Jul at Clinton

By his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine on 18 May 1152, Henry brought the Duchy of Aquitaine to the vast French holdings of the English monarch. In addition to Aquitaine, this included Normandy, Brittany, Maine, Anjou, and Touraine.

2 Nov 1164
Thomas Becket flees to France
May 1169
Anglo-Norman mercenaries land in Ireland
29 Dec 1170
Thomas Becket assassinated in Canterbury Cathedral by four of Henry’s knights.
17 Oct. 1171
Henry lands in Ireland
Mar 1173
Widespread rebellion against Henry arises
17 Oct 1173
Royalist forces defeat the Earl of Leicester at Fornham
13 Jul 1174
William, king of the Scots captured at Alnwick
11 Jun 1189
Death of Henry, the Young King

Richard I (1189-1199)

Claim:
son of Henry II
Born:
8 Sep 1157 at Oxford, England
Coronation:
3 Sep 1189 at Westminster
Died:
6 Apr 1199 at Chalus
16 Mar 1190
Massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York
4 Jul 1190
Richard sets out on the Third Crusade from Vezelay
7 Sep 1191
Richard was victorious at Arsuf
9 Oct 1192
Richard sails from Acre
20 Dec 1192
Richard was captured by Leopold V, duke of Austria
4 Feb 1194
Richard was released after the payment of the ransom of 150,000 Marks.

John (1199-1216)

Claim:
son of Henry II
Born:
24 Dec 1166 at Oxford, England
Coronation:
27 May 1199 at Westminster
Died:
19 Oct 1216 at Newark, England
1202
When John failed to heed a summons of the French King, his lands on the continent were declared forfeit with the exception of Gascony.
1203
To recover his lands in France, John ordered the construction of many ships with Portsmouth being responsible for several. He also created the admiralty at this time. Some give credit to John for the creation of the modern Royal Navy for these acts.
24 Jun 1204
The Duchy of Normandy lost to France. This had been preceded by the loss of Poitou and Anjou. The loss was made official by the Treaty of Paris of 1259.
24 Mar 1208
Interdict proclaimed on England
2 Jul 1214
The interdict is lifted
27 Jul 1214
The Battle of Bouvines was the first last inter-European conflict: involving Germany, Flanders, France, Rome, and England.
15 Jun 1215
John signs the Magna Carta at Runnymede
21 May 1216
Louis of France land in Kent

House of Plantagent

The house of Plantagent orginated in Anjou, France.

Henry III (1216-1272)

Claim:
son of John
Born:
1 Oct 1207 at Winchester Castle
Coronation:
28 Oct 1216
Died:
16 Nov 1272 at Westminster
20 May 1217
Royalist victory at Loncoln
24 Aug 1217
Royalist naval victory off Sandwich
12 Sep 1217
Peace of Kingston between Henry III and Louis of France

Edward I (1272-1307) Longshanks

Claim:
son of Henry III
Born:
17 Jun 1239 at Westminster
Coronation:
19 Aug 1274
Died:
7 Jul 1307 at Cumberland, England
1290
Edward formally expels all Jews from England
11 Sep 1297
The English were defeated at the battle of Stirling Bridge by William Wallace and Andrew Moray. This was the first battle of the First War of Scottish Independence.
22 Jul 1298
Edward defeats the Scots at the battle of Falkirk. The defeat resulted in the resignation of Wallace as Guardian and ended the peoples phase of the First War of Scottish Independence.
23 Aug 1305
William Wallace executed

Edward II (1307-1327)

Claim:
fourth son of Edward I
Born:
25 April 1284 at Gwynedd
Coronation:
25 Feb 1308
Died:
21 Sep 1327 at Gloucestershire

Edward III (1327-1377)

Claim:
son of Edward II
Born:
13 Nov 1312 at Windsor Castle
Coronation:
1 Feb 1327
Died:
21 Jun 1377 at Sheen Palace, Richmond
1327
The Scots defeated the English at Stanhope and Weardale. The invasion was provoked by violations of a truce between England and Scotland by English privateers.
17 Mar 1328
The Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton was signed. In the name of Edward III, all claims to sovereignty over Scotland were renounced.
1337
The start of the Hundred Years War. Edward’s possessions, the duchy of Aquitaine and the county of Pontheu were confiscated by Philip VI of France. In turn Edward laid claim to the French crown of which he was the only direct male descendant.

Richard II (1377-1399)

Claim:
grandson of Edward III
Born:
6 Jan 1367 at Bordeaux, France
Coronation:
16 Jul 1377
Died:
c. 14 Feb 1400 at Yorkshire, England
12 Jun 1381
The begining of the peasant revolt with the attack on Savoy Palace.

House of Lancaster

Henry IV (1399-1413)

Claim:
grandson of Edward III
Born:
15 Apr 1367 at Bolingbroke Castle
Coronation:
13 Oct 1399
Died:
20 Mar 1413 at Westminster

Henry V (1413-1422)

Claim:
son of Henery IV
Born:
9 Aug 1387 at Monmouth Castle, Wales
Coronation:
9 Apr 1413
Died:
31 Aug 1422 at Vincennes, France
25 Oct 1415
Henry’s forces defeat the French at Agincourt
1420
By the Treaty of Troyes, Henry is declared the successor to the French throne

Henry VI (1422-1461)

Claim:
son of Henry V
Born:
6 Dec 1421 at Windsor Castle
Coronation:
6 Nov 1429

Henry was also the King of France

1455
War of the Roses begins with intermittent battles until 1485
4 Mar 1461
Henry was deposed by his cousin Edward of York

House of York

Edward IV (1461-1470)

Claim:
great great grandson of Edward III
Born:
28 Apr 1442 at Rouen, Normandy, France
Coronation:
28 Jun 1461

Henry VI (1470-1471)

2nd Reign:
3 Oct 1470
Died:
21 May 1471 at Tower of London
30 Oct 1470
Henry was restored to the throne when Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick defeated the Yorkist forces.
4 May 1471
Battle of Tewkesbury in which the Prince of Wales was killed.
21 May 1471
Henry VI was murdered in the Tower of London.

Edward IV (1471-1483)

2nd Reign:
11 Apr 1471
Died:
9 Apr 1483 at Westminster

Edward V (1483-1483)

Claim:
son of Edward IV
Born:
2 Nov 1470 at Westminster
Coronation:
never crowned
Died:
c. 1483
1483
Edward and his brother were incarcerated in the Tower of London never to be seen again.

Richard III (1483-1485)

Claim:
great great grandson of Edward III and bother of Edward IV
Born:
2 Oct 1452 at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, England
Coronation:
6 Jul 1483
Died:
22 Aug 1485 at Bosworth Field, Leicestershire, England

Younger brother to Edward IV

22 Aug 1486
Killed at Bosworth by the forces of Henry Tudor (Henry VII)

House of Tudor

Henry VII (1485-1509)

Claim:
great great great grandson of Edward III
Born:
28 Jan 1457 at Pembroke Castle, Wales
Coronation:
30 Oct 1485
Died:
21 Apr 1509 at Richmond Palace, England

Henry VIII (1509-1547)

Claim:
son of Henry VII
Born:
28 Jun 1491 at Greenwich Palace, Greenwich, England
Coronation:
24 Jun 1509
Died:
28 Jan 1547 at Palace of Whitehall, London

Edward VI (1547-1553)

Claim:
son of Henry VII
Born:
12 Oct 1537 at Hampton Court, Middlesex, England
Coronation:
20 Feb 1547
Died:
6 Jul 1553 at Greenwich Palace, Kent, England

Mary I (1553-1558)

Claim:
daughter of Henry VIII
Born:
15 Feb 1516 at Palace of Placentia, Greenwich
Coronation:
1 October 1553
Died:
17 Nov 1558 at St. James Palace, London

Elizabeth I (1558-1603)

Claim:
daughter of Henry VII
Born:
7 Sep 1533 at Palace of Placentia, Greenwich
Coronation:
15 January 1559
Died:
24 Mar 1603 at Richmond Palace, Surrey, England
29 Jul 1588
The Battle of Gravelines. After sending fire ships into the Spanish Armada the previous night, which caused many of the Spanish ships to scatter, the English Navy engaged the Spanish resulting in the loss of 11 Spanish ships. Not being able to sail westwards, the Spanish were forced to sail through the North Sea and around Scotland and Ireland to return to Spain. Only 67 of the original 131 ships survived. 25,000 men were lost.

House of Stuart

James I (1603-1625)

Claim:
great great grandson of Henry VII
Born:
19 Jun 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, Scotland
Coronation:
29 Jul 1567
Died:
27 Mar 1625 at Theobalds House, England

James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots. He became James VI of Scotland on her death..

1618
The Thirty Years War began

Charles I (1625-1649)

Claim:
son of James I
Born:
19 Nov 1600 at Dunfermline Palace, Scotland
Coronation:
18 Jun 1633
Died:
30 Jan 1649 at Whitehall, London
30 Jan 1649
Charles was beheaded at the Palace of Whitehall

Interregnum (1649-1660)

Charles II (1660-1685)

Claim:
son of Charles I
Born:
29 May 1630 at St. James Palace, London
Coronation:
1 Jan 1651
Died:
6 Feb 1685 at Whitehall Palace, London

James II (1685-1688)

Claim:
son of Charles I
Born:
14 Oct 1633 at St. James Palace, London
Coronation:
23 Apr 1685
Died:
16 Sep 1701 at Chateau de St-Germain-en Laye, France

Mary II (1689-1694)/William III(1689-1702)

Claim:
daughter of James II
Born:
30 Apr 1662 at St. James Palace, London
Coronation:
11 Apr 1689
Died:
28 Dec 1694 at Kensington Palace, London

William III(1689-1702)

Claim:
Co-monach with Marry II
Born:
4 Nov 1650 at Binnenhof, The Hauge
Coronation:
11 Apr 1689
Died:
8 Mar 1702 at Kensington Palace, London

Anne (1702-1714)

Claim:
daughter of James II
Born:
6 Feb 16665 St. James Palace, Westminster
Coronation:
23 Apr 1702
Died:
1 Aug 1714 at Kensington Palace, Middlesex, England
1701
War of the Spanish Succession. It lasted until 1714.
1 May 1707
England and Scotland combined to form Great Britain by the Act of Settlement

House of Hanover

George I (1714-1727)

Claim:
2nd cousin to Anne
Born:
28 May 1660 at Hanover, Brunwick-Luneburg
Coronation:
20 Oct 1714
Died:
11 Jun 1727 at Schloss Osnabruck, Osnabruck

Georger was also the Elector of Hanover.

1721
PM Sir Robert Walpole. Later 1st Earl of Orford

George II (1727-1760)

Claim:
son of George I
Born:
9 Nov 1683 at Hanover
Coronation:
22 Oct 1727
Died:
25 Oct 1760 at Kensington Palace, London
1742
PM Earl of Wilmington (Spencer Crompton)
1743
PM Henry Pelham
1754
PM Duke of Newcastle (Thomas Pelham-Holles)
1754
Seven Years War
1756
PM Duke of Devonshire (William Cavendish)

George III (1760-1811)

Claim:
grandson of George II
Born:
4 Jun 1738 at Norfolk House, London
Coronation:
22 September 1761
Died:
29 Jan 1820 at Windsor Castle, Windsor, England
1762
PM Earl of Bute (John Stuart)
1763
PM George Grenville
1765
PM Marquess of Rockingham (Charles Wentworth)
1766
PM Earl of Chatham (William Pitt the Elder) (suspect)
1767
PM Duke of Grafton (Augustus Henry Fitzroy)
1770
PM Lord North
19 Oct 1781
General Conrwallis surrenders at Yorktown
1782
PM Marquess of Rockingham (Charles Wentworth)
1782
PM Earl of Shelburne (William Petty)
1783
PM Duke of Portland
1783
PM William Pitt the Younger
3 Sep 1783
Treaty of Paris signed
1801
PM Henry Addington
1804
PM William Pitt the Younger
1806
PM Lord Grenville
1807
PM Duke of Portland
1809
PM Spence Perceval

George IV (1811-1830)

Claim:
son of George III
Born:
12 Aug 1762 at St. James Palace, London
Coronation:
19 Jul 1821
Died:
26 Jun 1839 at Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England
1812
PM Earl of Liverpool
1827
PM George Canning
1827
PM Viscount Goderich
1828
PM Duke of Wellington
1829
Catholic Emancipation

William IV (1830-1837)

Claim:
son of George III
Born:
21 Aug 1765 at Buckingham House, London
Coronation:
8 Sept 1831
Died:
20 Jun 1837
1830
PM Earl Grey
1834
PM Viscount Melbourne
1834
PM Sir Robert Peel
1835
PM Viscount Melbourne

House of Windsor

The house was orginally called Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. It was changed in 1917.

Victoria (1837-1901)

Claim:
granddaughter of George III
Born:
24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace, London
Coronation:
28 Jun 1838
Died:
22 Jan 1901 at Osborne House, Isle of Wight

Vicotria was also Empress of India

1841
PM Sir Robert Peel
1846
PM Lord Russel
1852
PM Earl of Derby
1852
PM Lord Aberdeen
1855
PM Viscount Palmerston
1858
PM Earl of Derby
1859
PM Viscount Palmerston
1865
PM Lord Russel
1866
PM Earl of Derby
1868
PM Benjamin Disraeli
1868
PM W. E. Gladstone
1874
PM Benjamin Disraeli
1880
PM W. E. Gladstone
1885
PM Marquess of Salisbury
1886
PM W. E. Gladstone
1886
PM Marquess of Salisbury
1892
PM W. E. Gladstone
1894
PM Earl of Rosebery
1895
PM Marquess of Salisbury

Edward VII (1901-1910)

Claim:
son of Victoria
Born:
9 Nov 1841 at Buckingham Palace, London
Coronation:
9 Aug 1902
Died:
6 May 1910 at Buckingham Palace, London
1902
PM Arthur James Balfour
1905
PM Sir H Campbell-Bannerman
1908
PM H H Asquith

Edward was also Emperor of India.

George V (1910-1936)

Claim:
son of Edward VII
Born:
3 Jun 1865 at Marlborough House, London
Coronation:
22 Jun 1911
Died:
20 Jan 1936 at Sandringham House, Norfolk

George was also Emperor of India.

1916
PM David Lloyd George
1922
PM Andrew Bonar Law
1923
PM Stanley Baldwin
1924
PM Ramsey MarDonald
1924
PM Stanley Baldwin
1929
PM Ramsey MacDonald
1935
PM Stanley Baldwin

Edward VIII (1936-1936)

Claim:
son of George V
Born:
23 Jun 1894 at White Lodge, Richmond, Surrey, England
Coronation:
na
Died:
28 May 1972 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, Paris, France

Edward reigned from 20 Jan 1936 to 11 Dec 1936, but was never coronated.

George VI (1936-1952)

Claim:
son of George V
Born:
14 Dec 1895 at Sandringham House, Norfolk, England
Coronation:
12 May 1937
Died:
8 Feb 1952 at Sandringham House, Norfolk, England
1937
PM Neville Chamberlain
1940
PM Sir Winston Churchill
1945
PM Clement Attlee
1951
PM Sir Winston Churchill

Elizabeth II (1952-)

Claim:
daughter of George VI
Born:
21 Apr 1926 at London
Coronation:
2 Jun 1953
Died:
living
1955
PM Sir Anthony Eden
1957
PM Harold Macmillan
1963
PM Sir Alec Douglas-Home
1964
PM Harold Wilson
1970
PM Edward Heath
1974
PM Harold Wilson
1976
PM James Callaghan
1979
PM Margaret Thatcher
1990
PM John Major
1997
PM Tony Blair